Final Exam Study Guide
The final exam will be on Monday, 10 December 2018, from 12:40 to 2:25 PM in Founders Hall room 2168. Everything in lecture & readings from the beginning of the streams topic to the end of the course will be fair game for test questions. The final exam will be about double the size of a normal test. The final exam will also have many repeat questions from Test # 1 and Test # 2 - use the answer sheets returned with your graded tests to learn from any boo-boos. I may rephrase old test questions (or not). I may rearrange answers on multiple choice questions from old tests (or not).
PLEASE BE SURE TO DO THE ONLINE STUDENT EVALUATIONS FOR THIS COURSE (= EARTH SCIENCES 1121).
<<IF YOU NEED TO TAKE THE TEST IN THE TESTING CENTER (HOPEWELL HALL ROOM 88), PLEASE INFORM/REMIND ME, OTHERWISE IT WON’T HAPPEN & THE PAPERWORK WON’T GET DONE>>
Streams & Water Cycle
What is the most effective agent that shapes the Earth’s surface?
Be familiar with the basic processes of the water cycle.
What is runoff? What is infiltration? What is evaporation? What is transpiration? What factors control how much runoff (vs. infiltration) occurs?
What is sheet flow? What is gullying?
What are streams?
What are high-energy streams vs. low-energy streams? What valley shapes do they make? What is the erosive potential of each?
What factors control water velocity in a stream?
What is the longitudinal profile of a stream? What is base level?
Be familiar with the map-view geometry of straight streams and meandering streams. Where in a meandering stream system is erosion going on? Where in a meandering stream system is sediment deposition going on? What are oxbow lakes? How do they form?
Know the basics of work done by streams.
What are the 3 processes by which streams erode? What are the 4 ways that streams transport materials?
What are the characteristics of sediments deposited in stream channels (for example, bars)? In floodplains? What are alluvial fans? What are deltas?
Know how to recognize & sketch the following stream patterns: dendritic, parallel, radial, centripetal, trellis, rectangular, braided.
Glaciers & Glaciation
What is a glacier?
What is snow? What is firn? What is glacial ice? Know the characteristics of each (see below).
Snow - loose sediments composed of ice at the Earth's surface
Firn - compacted & loosely ice-cemented snow; a sedimentary rock with clastic texture.
Glacial ice - recrystallized ice; a metamorphic rock with crystalline texture.
What is glacial drift? What is outwash? What is till? What are moraines? What is tillite? What are varves? What are varvites? Know the characteristics of each.
How much of Earth's water is in the oceans, in the form of salt water?
How much of Earth's water is fresh water? Is all of that fresh water in liquid form?
When did Earth last experience an Ice Age?
How many glacial advances did Earth have during the Pleistocene? The sediments left behind here in America from the Pleistocene glaciations ultimately came from where? (eroded from bedrock in Canada).
Do glaciers tend to flatten landscapes? (Yes)
Know what glacial intervals & interglacial intervals are.
What is the relationship between glacial-interglacial periods & sea level change? What does sea level do during glaciations? What does sea level do between glaciations?
What are the two major types of glaciations? Where do alpine glaciers (a.k.a. valley glaciers; a.k.a. mountain glaciers) occur? What are continental glaciers?
Why do glaciers advance? During glacial advances, is erosion or sediment deposition the main geologic process? (Erosion)
Why do glaciers recede? During glacial recessions, is erosion or sediment deposition the main geologic process? (Sediment deposition)
Know the relative ice velocities of the center & top of glaciers versus the sides & base of glaciers.
What is the rigid zone? Where is it located? How thick is it? What is the plastic zone? Where is it located? What are crevasses? In which zone of a glacier do crevasses form? What is the maximum depth of crevasses?
What is an icefall?
How do glacial striations & glacial grooves form? Are there good examples of these in Ohio?
How quickly do glaciers move? Do they all move at the same velocity?
What is the significance of a U-shaped valley? What is a hanging valley? What is a cirque? What is an arete? What is a horn? What are tarns? What are pater noster lakes? What is a fjord?
What is till? What are moraines? What is ground moraine? What are end moraines? What are terminal morines & recessional moraines? What are lateral moraines? What are medial moraines? What are glacial erratics? What is outwash? What is valley train?
What is a nunatak? What is a roche moutonnee? How does it form? Does it indicate direction of glacial movement? What types of moraines are formed by continental glaciers? What are drumlins? Do they indicate direction of glacial movement? What are glacial erratics? What are eskers? How do they form? What type of deposit forms in a meltwater lake in front of a melting glacier? What is loess? What are kettles and kettlehole lakes?
Be familiar with the important glacial intervals ("Ice Ages") in Earth history (Proterozoic (2 of them), end-Ordovician, Late Paleozoic, Pleistocene).
What is economic geology? How does coal form? In what depositional environment does the precursor of coal occur? How long does it take for coal to form?
Be familiar with the characteristics & properties of the various types/ranks of coal: peat, lignite coal, bituminous coal, anthracite coal. Which are sedimentary? Which are metamorphic? Which one burns the hottest? Which one burns the cleanest? (anthracite) Which one has the most smoky, sooty pollution when burned? (peat) Which one releases the least amount of heat when burned? (peat) What is the carbon content (in percentages) of the different ranks of coal? What is graphite schist? What is cannel coal? What is “petrified coal” (= coal balls)?
Be familiar with the composition of coal (CHONS, volatile hydrocarbons, water/moisture, ash, sulfur in the form of pyrite). What is ash? What is the environmental consequence of burning pyrite-rich coal?
What countries have lots of coal reserves/resources?
Does America have lots of coal? Coal in eastern USA is mostly what type & what age? (Bituminous coal of Pennsylvanian age; some anthracite coal of Pennyslvanian age) Is eastern USA coal pyrite-rich in areas? (Yes)
Coal in western USA is mostly what type & what age? (Lignite coal and sub-bituminous coal of Tertiary age) Is western USA coal generally pyrite-rich? (No)
What are the main uses of coal? What is coke? What's it used for?
What is petroleum? Does petroleum refer to just crude oil?
Where did the world's petroleum industry experience its first oil "boom"? Where was the world's 2nd oil "boom"? Where was the world's 3rd oil "boom"?
What are the standard units of measurement for oil & natural gas?
What is crude oil? What 3 categories of organic compounds occur in crude oil?
What is natural gas? Most natural gas is what chemical? What other chemicals are in natural gas? Do oil & natural gas always occur together?
Be familiar with how petroleum forms.
What are source rocks? Example? What causes source rocks to release petroleum? Does petroleum move once it's released from source rocks? What is migration? What are seeps?
What are reservoir rocks? Example? What characteristics are needed in a rock in order for oil & natural gas to hang out there?
What stops or prevents petroleum from moving further?
Be familiar with the geometries of the common petroleum traps (anticline traps, fault traps, unconformity traps, reef traps, salt dome traps).
What characteristics do rocks have that seal & trap petroleum? (non-porous and impermeable) Example? (shale)
Is discovery & extraction of petroleum an expensive process? Does luck play a role in the discovery of petroleum? Does science play a role in discovery of petroleum?
Can one get almost all of the natural gas out of a reservoir by drilling?
Can one get almost all of the crude oil out of a reservoir by drilling & pumping?
Where are most major oil fields in the world located, in terms of plate tectonic environment? Most of the world's major oil fields are what age?
What two main areas in North America have large quantities of oil?
What Central American countries have lots of oil?
What South American countries have lots of oil?
What is the largest heavy oil belt in the world? Where is it?
Does Europe have lots of oil? What one area in Europe has lots of oil?
What portions of Asia have lots of oil? What countries in the Middle East have lots of oil? The largest normal oil field in the world is what? Where is it? What countries in Africa have lots of oil?
What areas/countries have most of the world's natural gas? Does America have lots of natural gas?
Be familiar with the many uses of petroleum in society.
What is oil shale? Does America have a large oil shale deposit? Where is it? What is it? How old is it?
What is tar sand/tar sandstone? Where's the largest example on Earth?
What is gilsonite? Is it a fuel?
Are mineral resources renewable or nonrenewable?
What 8 elements are most common in the Earth's crust?
What makes any particular rock an ore?
Are ore deposits evenly distributed on Earth?
Where do magmatic ore deposits usually occur, in terms of plate tectonic environment?
What are pegmatites?
Why do some valuable mineral deposits occur at the base of cooled magma chambers? What minerals/elements occur there? Examples of places that have significant mineral deposits at the base of cooled magma chambers?
What are kimberlites & lamproites? What valuable mineral can be found in them? What country has lots of valuable kimberlites?
What are hydrothermal ores/hydrothermal veins? Where do they form? How do they form? What valuable elements can be found in hydrothermal veins?
What are BIFs? What minerals/elements are mined from BIFs?
What are evaporites? What materials/minerals are mined from evaporites?
What are placers? What materials/minerals occur in placer deposits?
What are some examples of materials that are mined/processed from metamorphic rocks such as schist?
Is "white asbestos" an igneous material, a sedimentary material, or a metamorphic material?
Be familiar the basics of iron. Is it the most used metal in human society? Is is common? Iron ore comes from what kind(s) of deposits?
Be familiar with the basics of aluminum. Is it widely used in society? Is is relatively common? What rock is the most important aluminum ore? What minerals are in that rock? How does it form? What's aluminum metal used for in society?
Be familiar with the basics of copper. What are the important copper ore minerals? In what types of deposits do these minerals occur? What is copper used for in society?
Be familiar with the basics of lead. The most important lead ore mineral is what? In what geologic deposits does it occur? What was lead historically used for in society? What is lead used for nowadays?
Be familiar with the basics of zinc. The most important zinc ore mineral is what? Do sphalerite & galena often occur together? What is zinc used for?
What are strategic metals? Be familiar with some examples of strategic metals, their ore minerals, and their uses.
Be familiar with the basics of gold. What's it used for? What kinds of minerals deposits have gold?
Be familiar with the basics of silver. Is most silver mined in the form of an elemental mineral or as a silver sulfide? What's silver used for, historically and today?
Be familiar with the basics of platinum. From what type of mineral deposit is most platinum mined? Does platinum occur by itself or as an alloy? What country has most of the world's platinum? Where is America's only platinum mine?
Be familiar with the basics of uranium. What two minerals are the most important uranium ores? In America, what type of rock do these urnaium minerals usually occur? What's uranium used for?
Be familiar with the basics of sulfur. Where does it come from? Where does it occur? What's it used for?
What is most nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (potash) used for?
What are the clays? How do they form? What is clay used for?
Are rock/sand/gravel quarries the most common type of quarrying operation on Earth? What rock/sand/gravel used for?
Be familiar with the basics of halite. In what deposits does it occur? What's it used for? Does Ohio have economic deposits of halite?
Be familiar with the basics of gypsum. In what deposits does it occur? What's it used for?
Be familiar with the basics of asbestos. White asbestos is a variety of what mineral? In what rock is white asbestos found? What was white asbestos traditionally used for?
Be familiar with the basics of graphite. From what kind of rock is graphite mined? What's graphite used for?
Be familiar with the basics of diamond. What makes a gem desirable? What kinds of minerals deposits have diamonds? What colors can diamond be? What country has most of the world's diamonds? Where else are gem-quality diamonds found? Does America have diamondiferous kimberlites?
Be familiar with the basics of sapphire. Sapphire is a gem-quality variety of what mineral? What colors can sapphire be? Where is gem-quality sapphire mined?
Be familiar with the basics of ruby. Ruby is a gem-quality variety of what mineral? What color does ruby have to be? Where is gem-quality ruby mined? Are rubies rarer than diamonds? Are rubies more valuable than diamonds?
What is asterism? What gems have it?
Be familiar with the basics of emerald. Emerald is a gem-quality, green variety of what mineral? In what deposits are emeralds found? Are emeralds more valuable than diamonds? Are emeralds more valuable than rubies? In what countries are emeralds mined? Does America have emerald mines?
Be familiar with the basic geology of the gemstones opal, alexandrite, lapis lazuli, and jade.