Geology 2205




Test # 2 will be on Tuesday, 30 March 2021, from 3:55 to 5:15 PM, in Founders Hall room 2168.  Everything covered since Test # 1 (= beginning of the Earth topic) to the end of the Jupiter’s moons topic will be fair game for test questions.  There will be a mix of multiple choice, true-and-false, short answer, and fill-in-the-blank.







Name the World

The test will start with photos to be identified by students.  Options: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, Phobos, Deimos, Vesta, Ceres, Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.


The pictures will be typical of what was shown in lecture and in the linked-to photo galleries at the course webpage.


Test questions may include (but are not necessarily limited to):



What is the # 1 largest and highest-density terrestrial planet?

Be familiar with the features of Earth’s core and mantle.

Earth’s continental crust is dominated by what rock type?  Earth’s oceanic crust is dominated by what rock types?

What is tectonic divergence?

What is subduction?  What is tectonic collision?

What is transform plate movement?

What is the Wilson Cycle?

What two gases are dominant in Earth’s air (atmosphere)?

What are the two most abundant fluids in Earth’s crust?

What kind of volcanism does Planet Earth have?  What types of volcanoes occur on Earth?

Most volcanoes and earthquakes on Planet Earth occur where?

Does Earth have preserved impact craters?  If so, examples?



The Moon is tidally locked with Earth - what does this mean?

Does the Moon have air?

Be familiar with the nature of the Moon’s core, mantle, and crust.

Does the Moon have quakes?

Be familiar with the general characteristics of the lunar highlands and the lunar maria.

What portion of the Moon’s landscape is a geologically older surface - the highlands or the maria?

Are impact craters common on the Moon?

What type of intrusive igneous rock is most common in the Moon’s crust?

What type of extrusive igneous rock is most common at the surface of maria?

Know the physical characteristics of breccia.

Does the Moon have active volcanism?

Be able to explain the following four hypotheses about the origin of Earth’s Moon: Fission Hypothesis, Accretion Hypothesis, Collision Hypothesis (= also known as the Giant Impact Hypothesis), Capture Hypothesis.



One Martian day - is it similar to the duration of one Earth day?  Is Mars’ rotation rate very similar to that of Earth?

What is the axial tilt of Mars - is it vertical/upright or tilted?  Does Mars have seasons or not?

Does Mars have any moons?  If so, how many and what size?

Why is Planet Mars reddish to rusty-reddish to rusty-brown colored?

Why can’t liquid water exist for very long at the surface of Mars?

What is the Martian atmosphere like?  Thick air?  Thin air?  About the same as Earth?  No air at all?

What is the # 1 gas in Mars’ atmosphere?

Does Mars have clouds or rain or storms?

Be familiar with the nature of Martian dust storms, in terms of their duration and extent.

Does Mars have plate tectonics?

Which half of Mars is generally low elevation - the northern hemisphere or the southern hemisphere?  Which half is generally high elevation?

What two minerals principally make up the Martian polar caps?

Mars has many valleys and valley networks, and yet - they’re dry.  How did these valleys form?

What are transverse dunes?  What are barchan dunes?

What is cross-bedding?  How does it form?  In what type of sedimentary rock does it commonly occur?

Does Mars have quakes?

Does Mars have volcanoes and volcanic deposits?  Are Martian volcanoes active now?

The largest type of volcano on Planet Mars is what type?

Does Mars have many impact craters?

The largest impact crater on Mars is what?



Which Martian moon has a large impact crater and is covered with long, narrow grooves?



What are the differences between a meteoroid, a meteor, and a meteorite?

What is a fireball?

Which is the most common type of meteorite on Earth - stony, iron, or stony-iron?

What are the common minerals in meteorites?

What are chondrules?

Do all stony meteorites have chondrules?

Iron meteorites are derived from what portions of old, busted-up, differentiated asteroids/dwarf planets?  Cores or mantles or crusts?

The criss-crossing pattern of intergrown blades of iron-nickel metal in many iron meteorites is called what?

What are the characteristics of pallasite meteorites?

Most asteroids in the Solar System occur where?

What are the characteristics of C-type asteroids (= the most common type)?

What are M-type asteroids?  What are S-type asteroids?

What are the physical characteristics of asteroids, in general?

What are the characteristics of rubble-pile asteroids?

Know the general features of Vesta.

What is Mount Rheasilvia?

How did the equatorial grooves of Vesta probably form?

Know the general features of Ceres.

What world has distinctive “bright spots”?  What minerals are likely making up these “bright spots”?

What kind of volcanism does Ceres have?



What is the largest planet in the Solar System?

What specific type of planet is Jupiter?

How long is one Jupiter day?  (How quickly does Jupiter rotate?)

Does Jupiter have few moons or many moons?  How many large moons does Jupiter have?

Does Jupiter have rings?

What object has the strongest magnetic field in the entire Solar System (not counting the Sun)?

Be generally familiar with Jupiter’s interior.

Jupiter’s magnetic field is generated in what internal layer?

What two elements are dominant in Jupiter’s atmosphere?

Does Jupiter have color banding?

Does Jupiter have storms?

Know the characteristics of Jupiter’s “Great Red Spot”.



Does Io have impact craters?  Is Io’s surface geologically young or geologically old?

Does Io have an icy crust & surface?  Or a rocky crust & surface?

Why does Io have a mostly yellow-colored surface?

What is the # 1 most volcanically active body in the entire Solar System?

What are Io’s lava flows composed of?

What are Io’s explosive volcanic eruptions composed of?



Does Europa have few or many impact craters?

Is Europa’s surface geologically old or young?

The crust/surface of Europa - is it rocky or icy?

Which Jupiter moon has cycloidal fractures at its surface, which consist of linked arcs?

Why does Europa have so many fractures in its icy crust?



What is the largest moon in the entire Solar System?

What is the only moon in the entire Solar System to have its own internal magnetic field?

Does Ganymede have a rocky or icy crust/surface?

Which is older - Ganymede’s dark-colored terrains or its light-colored terrains?  How do we know?



Which of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter has the lowest density? (= least heavy for its size?)

Is Callisto’s crust/surface rocky or icy?

Does Callisto have an old, heavily-cratered surface, or a young, lightly-cratered surface?

The number one largest definite impact structure in the entire Solar System is on Callisto - what is it?





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