Geology 2206

 

Test # 1 Study Guide

 

Test # 1 will be Wednesday, 13 February 2019, from 3:55 to 5:15 PM, in Founders Hall room 2168.  Everything covered in lecture & in readings so far, from the beginning of the course to “Cosmogenous sediments” (= microtektites & micrometeorites) will be fair game for test questions.  There will be a mix of multiple choice, true-and-false, short answer, and fill-in-the-blank.

 

 


 

<<IF YOU NEED TO TAKE THE TEST IN THE TESTING CENTER (HOPEWELL HALL ROOM 88, PLEASE REMIND ME, OTHERWISE THE PAPERWORK WON’T GET DONE>>

 


 

JSJ’s lecture slide shows as unlisted youtube videos

(no narration - feel free to pause to stare at individual slides)

 

Intro. to oceanography

Origin of water to ocean characteristics

Plate tectonics

Ocean basin development

Marine sediments # 1

Marine sediments # 2

Marine sediments # 3

 

 


  

Test questions will cover (but are not necessarily limited to) the following:

What is oceanography?  What are the 4 disciplines of oceanography?  What sciences are needed to do oceanography?

What are the uses of the world's oceans by historical & modern societies?

 


 

What is the average salinity of ocean water (in percent, or in parts per thousand)?

 


 

What type of information is shown on bathymetric maps?

 


 

What is the origin of water in Earth’s oceans?  Be familiar with the various hypotheses that explain the origin of ocean water.  Based on isotopic evidence, have comets contributed a significant portion of Earth’s ocean water?

How long has Earth had oceans?  Available evidence indicates that liquid water in the oceans was present on Earth as early as when (in billions of years)?  How old are the oldest marine fossils?  What does the sedimentary rock record tell us about sea level through geologic time?  Have the ocean basins more or less remained in their present positions, and maintained their present sizes and shapes?

 


 

Be familiar with the fundamental divisions of the Earth (core, mantle, crust).

What’s the composition of the core?  What’s the composition of the mantle?  The two types of crust are composed of what?

What is the hydrosphere?  What is the atmosphere?

Where is the highest point of land on Earth?  Where is the deepest portions of Earth’s oceans?  What’s the average depth of Earth's oceans?

 


 

How much of Earth’s surface is ocean?  How much of Earth’s surface is land?

Which hemisphere has a higher percentage of oceans (Northern Hemisphere vs. Southern Hemisphere)?

 


 

What is the continental shelf?  What is the shelf-slope break?  What is the continental slope?  What is the continental rise?  What are submarine canyons?  What is the abyssal plain?  What are abyssal hills?  What are deep-sea channels?  What are seamounts?  What are guyots?  What is the mid-ocean ridge (MOR)?  What is a trench?  Do trenches trap lots of sediments?

If sea level change occurs, what portion of the seafloor is affected most?

 


 

What ocean basin is the largest by volume & deepest?  What ocean basin is almost completely surrounded by active mountain building?  Does the Pacific Basin have narrow or wide continental shelves?  What ocean basin has the highest number of islands, underwater mountains, and submerged volcanoes?

Be familiar with the general characteristics of the four categories of ocean islands.

Give an example of a mid-ocean ridge in the Pacific Basin.

What is a passive margin?  What is an active margin?

Do passive margins have wide or narrow continental shelves? (wide)

Do active margins have wide or narrow continental shelves? (narrow)

Is the Atlantic Basin mostly surrounded by active margins or passive margins?

What’s distinctive about the geometry of the shorelines on either side of the Atlantic Basin?  Which is the youngest of the world’s ocean basins?

Give an example of a mid-ocean ridge in the Atlantic Basin.

Are the continental shelves surrounding the Atlantic Basin narrow or wide?

Does the Atlantic Basin have lots of islands or relatively few islands?

Which ocean basin is the warmest & saltiest?

Which ocean basin is the coldest?  Do continental shelves form a significant portion of the Arctic Basin’s seafloor?  Which ocean basin has significant pack ice?

Explain why the Indian Ocean has a large input of fluvial (river) sediments.

Give an example of a mid-ocean ridge in the Indian Basin.

Does the Indian Basin have lots of islands or relatively few islands?

 


 

Understand the basics of plate tectonics.  Be familiar with the types of evidence that indicate continents (plates) move (e.g., matching shapes of continents, plant fossil record, animal fossil record, stratigraphic similarities, magnetic reversal record, earthquake distribution, etc.).

The core is dominated by what specific material?

What is the difference between the inner core & the outer core?

The mantle is dominated by what specific material?

What are the 2 types of crust?  Oceanic crust is composed of what specific material?  Continental crust is composed of what specific material?  Which type of crust is thicker?  Which type of crust is heavier?

What is the lithosphere?  What is the asthenosphere?

What is divergence?  What is subduction?  What is transform movement?

Is crust created or destroyed at a mid-ocean ridge (= divergent plate boundary)? [created]

About how quickly do plates move at mid-ocean ridges?

Where do trenches form?

Do subduction zones have lots of powerful earthquakes?

What are collision zones?  Examples of mountains formed by continent-continent collision?

Mid-ocean ridges are often offset by what?  What are fracture zones?

What are hotspots?  Can hotspots rip apart tectonic plates?  Do all hotspots do this?  Examples of hotspots?

How do geologists determine the direction & speed of tectonic plates? (geology of hotspot tracks; laser measurements; GPS readings (global positioning satellites)).

Be generally familiar with the major modern tectonic plates.

 


 

What is an embryonic ocean?  What are its characteristics?  Example?

What is a youthful ocean?  What are its characteristics?  Example?

What is a mature ocean?  What are its characteristics?  Example?

What is an old-age ocean?  What are its characteristics?  Example?

What is an extinct basin?  What are its characteristics?  Examples?

 


 

Be familiar with the different size categories of sediments (boulders, cobbles, pebbles, granules, sand, silty, clay).  What is gravel?  What is mud?  Most marine sediments are what size?

What does “neritic” mean?  What does “pelagic” mean?

What are lithogenous (terrigenous) sediments?

What are biogenous sediments?

What are hydrogenous sediments?

What are cosmogenous sediments?

What does sorting mean?  What does “well sorted” mean?  What does “poorly sorted” mean?

What does maturity mean?  What are the characteristics of mature sediments?  What are the characteristics of immature sediments?

 


 

Be familiar with how lithogenous sediments form (physical & chemical weathering/erosion of bedrock on the continents).

What are some of the important processes in the rock cycle resulting in the production of lithogenous sediments?

What are the various ways that lithogenous sediments get transported into the oceans?

How do lithogenous sediments get reworked & transported once they are in an ocean basin?  What are turbidity flows?

Most lithogenous sediments are composed of what common minerals?

Be generally familiar with the common minerals that make up lithogenous marine sediments (quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, muscovite mica, olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite mica)

Lithogenous sands are mostly composed of what minerals?

Lithogenous silts are mostly composed of what minerals?

Lithogenous clays are mostly composed of what minerals?

What are the 4 common types of marine clay sediments?

Where is illite mostly found in the oceans? [near the continents, where rivers empty into the oceans; illite is also dispersed by winds]

Where is montmorillonite (= smectite) mostly found in the oceans? [at & near mid-ocean ridges and volcanic islands]

Where are chlorites mostly found in the oceans? [high latitudes - near the poles, where glaciers meet the sea]

Where is kaolinite mostly found in the oceans? [low latitudes - warm, tropical, equatorial areas]

Are beach sediments usually quartz-rich?

Are glacial sediments expected to be poorly sorted or well sorted? 

Where are turbidites mostly deposited?  What physical sedimentary features are expected in a turbidite deposit?

What is the nature of abyssal clays?  Do they get deposited quickly or slowly?  What colors are most abyssal clays?

 


 

What is the origin of biogenous sediments?  What are some specific examples of biogenous sediment grains?

What is ooze?  What are planktonic organisms?

Siliceous biogenous sediments are composed of what specific material?

Where are most siliceous biogenous sediments deposited?

What are the characteristics of diatoms?

What are the characteristics of radiolarians?

What are the characteristics of silicoflagellates?

What is siliceous ooze?  What are 3 varieties of siliceous ooze?  Lithification of each type of siliceous ooze results in what type of rock(s)?

Carbonate biogenous sediments are composed of what specific minerals?

What are the characteristics of foraminifera (“forams”)?

What are the characteristics of coccolithophores?

What are pteropods & ostracods?

What is carbonate ooze (calcareous ooze)?  Lithification of carbonate ooze results in what type of rock?

Where do deep-sea carbonate biogenous sediments get deposited?

Do reef and peri-reef environments produce lots of carbonate biogenous sediments?

What is the composition of phosphatic biogenous sediments?  Examples of phosphatic biogenous sediment grains?

What is the composition of organic biogenous sediments?

What is the CCD?  What is the lysocline?  At what depths in the ocean do they occur?  What factors of water make CaCO3 more likely to dissolve?

Do calcareous oozes form in the deepest of the deep portions of the oceans?

Where are most calcareous oozes forming (being deposited)?

What 3 factors control ooze formation & deposition?

What is productivity?

 


 

What are hydrogenous sediments?  How do they form?

How do montmorillonite & phillipsite form?

What are manganese nodules?  What are they composed of?  How quickly do they grow?  Where are they commonly found?

What are black smokers?  (seafloor hot springs at & near mid-ocean ridges)

What specific minerals are black smoker chimneys commonly made of?

What are phosphorites?  Where do they get deposited in modern oceans?

What is glauconite?  How does it form?  In what rocks would you expect to find glauconite? [often sandstone]

What are evaporites?  How do they form?  What specific minerals are common in evaporite deposits?

What evidence indicates that solid CaCO3 can inorganically precipitate directly out of seawater?  What are whitings?  What are oolites?

Where do cosmogenous sediments come from?  Examples of cosmogenous sediments?  How do they form?

See: Meteorites & Tektites

 

 

 


 

 

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