Geology 2206

 

Test # 1 Study Guide

 

Test # 1 will be Thursday, 29 September 2022, from 3:55 to 5:15 PM, in the Alford Science Building, room 220.  Everything covered in lecture & in readings since the beginning of the course will be fair game for test questions.  There will be a mix of multiple choice, true-and-false, short answer, and fill-in-the-blank.

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<<IF YOU NEED TO TAKE THE TEST IN THE TESTING CENTER (WARNER CENTER ROOM 206), PLEASE REMIND ME, OTHERWISE THE PAPERWORK WON’T GET DONE>>

 

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JSJ’s lecture slide shows as unlisted youtube videos

(no narration / no sound / no audio; can pause to look at individual slides & photos)

 

Intro. to oceanography

Origin of water to ocean characteristics

Plate tectonics

Ocean basin development

Marine sediments # 1

Marine sediments # 2

Marine sediments # 3

Water & Seawater (partial)

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Test questions will cover (but are not necessarily limited to) the following:

What are the uses of the world's oceans by historical and/or modern societies?

 


 

What is the average salinity of ocean water (in percent, or in parts per thousand)?

 


 

What type of information is shown on bathymetric maps?

 


 

Based on mineral and fossil evidence, how long has Earth had oceans, in terms of billions of years ago?

 


 

How much of Earth’s surface is ocean?  How much of Earth’s surface is land?

Which hemisphere has a higher percentage of oceans (Northern Hemisphere vs. Southern Hemisphere)?

 


 

What is the continental shelf?  What is the shelf-slope break?  What is the continental slope?  What is the continental rise?  What are submarine canyons?  What is the abyssal plain?

Be able to sketch a continental margin cross-section showing shelf, break, slope, rise, and abyssal plain.

What are seamounts?  What are guyots?  What is a mid-ocean ridge (MOR)?  What is a trench?

 


 

What ocean basin is the largest by volume & deepest?

Be familiar with the general characteristics of the four categories of ocean islands.

Give an example of a mid-ocean ridge in the Pacific Basin.

Give an example of a mid-ocean ridge in the Atlantic Basin.

Do continental shelves form a significant portion of the Arctic Basin’s seafloor?

Give an example of a mid-ocean ridge in the Indian Basin.

 

 


 

Understand the basics of plate tectonics.

What is the lithosphere?  What is the asthenosphere?

What is divergence?

What is convergence?

What is subduction?  Where do trenches form?

What is collision?

What is transform movement?

About how quickly do plates move at mid-ocean ridges?

What are fracture zones?

 


 

Example of an embryonic ocean? 

Example of a youthful ocean?

Example of a mature ocean?

Example of an old-age ocean?

Examples of extinct basin?

 


 

What are neritic sediments?  What are pelagic sediments?

What are lithogenous (terrigenous) sediments?

What are biogenous sediments?

What are hydrogenous sediments?

What are cosmogenous sediments?

What does sorting mean?  What does “well sorted” mean?  What does “poorly sorted” mean?

What does maturity mean?  What are the characteristics of mature sediments?  What are the characteristics of immature sediments?

 


 

What are the characteristics of glacially-deposited lithogenous sediments on the seafloor?

Are glacial sediments expected to be poorly sorted or well sorted? 

What are turbidity currents?

Ferromagnesian minerals - are they dark or light colored?

Non-ferromagnesian minerals - are they dark or light colored?

Lithogenous sands are mostly composed of what minerals?

Be generally familiar with the 4 common types of clays in marine fine-grained sediments. (illite, montmorillonite, chlorite, kaolinite)

Where is kaolinite mostly found in the oceans?

Are beach sediments usually quartz-rich?

What are turbidites & how do they form?  Where are turbidites mostly deposited?

Be familiar with the basics of abyssal clays.  What colors do they have?

 


 

Siliceous biogenous sediments (siliceous oozes) are composed of what specific material?

Be familiar with the general characteristics of diatoms, radiolarians, and silicoflagellates.

Be familiar with the general characteristics of coccolithophores.  Burial & solidification of carbonate ooze (= calcareous ooze, especially coccolith ooze) results in what type of rock?

What is the CCD?  What is the lysocline?

Can calcareous oozes form below the CCD, in the deepest of the deep portions of the oceans?

What 3 factors control ooze formation & deposition?

What is productivity?

 


 

Know the basics of manganese nodules.

Be familiar with black smokers (= deep seafloor hot springs at & near mid-ocean ridges).  What specific minerals are black smoker chimneys commonly made of?

What is glauconite?  How does it form?

What are evaporites and how do they form?  What specific minerals are common in evaporite deposits?

What are oolites?

Where do cosmogenous sediments come from?  Examples of cosmogenous sediments?

See: Meteorites & Tektites

In what portions of the seafloor are sediment accumulation rates the highest (quickest)?  In what portions of the seafloor are sediment accumulation rates the lowest (slowest) - what type of deposits are these?

 


 

What is a covalent bond?  What is a hydrogen bond?

Does water have a high heat capacity? (Yes)

How much heat (energy) does it take to warm up a large body of water? (lots)

How much heat (energy) needs to be taken away to cool down a large body of water? (lots)

How does the density (heaviness) of pure water change as it is cooled from 100° C to 4° C?  How does the density (heaviness) of pure water change as it is cooled from 4° C to 0° C?

Know the basic salinity classification terms: hyposaline, hypersaline, brackish, brine.

What are the # 1 and # 2 most common dissolved inorganic ions in seawater?

What does evaporation do to seawater salinity?

What does precipitation (rain/snow) do to surface seawater salinity?

What does river runoff do to seawater salinity values?

What does the formation of sea ice do to seawater salinity values?

What does the melting of sea ice do to seawater salinity values?

 


 

 

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